Jung Joon Mo
Patrice de la Perrière
The Reality and Phantasy -A Contribution to individual art exhibition of Lee, Sook Ja
An Artist's Expression Of Own Life Through barley Field Scene

Jung Joon Mo

Mother Earth to Embrace the Sky
Reconsidering art of Lee Suk-ja  

Written by Jeong Jun-mo 
(Exhibition Director of Goyang Cultural Foundation / Art Critic / Cultural Policy)

The Beginning

Once it was widely believed that local was global. Then the focus of our interest moved to globalization as the fever for local values waned. Of course, there is no doubt in our respect for local values. Nevertheless, it is unavoidable to follow up with the trend of globalization. We seem to have come to a deadlock. We cannot pursue the new at the expense of our traditions nor can blindly cling to the old. 

Both the old and the new are important. However, we should be cautious of having a partial inclination to one of them. On one hand, not every tradition deserves our protection and promotion; on the other hand, not every new thing is worth accepting in order to be globalized.        

Those who eagerly worshipped tradition as if it was the only way to maintain our nation, tended to be converted into admirers of global attitudes and taste in the age of globalization. They are two-faced; traditionalists on the national memorial days, and globalists on the other days. However, it is clear that tradition should be preserved and succeeded at the same time as globalization is pursued with no hesitation. 

We cannot choose between tradition and globalization, because each of them has an equivalent value. We should develop a new tradition out of the old one, keeping abreast of our times. Yet, to some of us, tradition has been perceived as something to be preserved just as it is.   

The irresistible trend of globalization is being considered westernization or modernization, which has been sought in the first place. Presumably, this attitude has originated from the idea that Korea was colonialized by Japan because it had been retarded in modernization and internationalization as the result of the Closed-door Policy during the Joseon period. This has led us to believe that westernization is equal to modernization, and modernization is equal to the well-being of our nation. This might have led us to misunderstand our traditions as obstacles to westernization or modernization. As a result of this misperception, we chose to modernize our society through globalization, leaving the task of inheritance and development of our traditions to the museums.

We can find the best example of such an issue as above in the field of Korean painting. Korean painting, which is based on our traditional aesthetics and techniques, is considered out of time, irrelevant to the modern environment. Now, it becomes history to be preserved in a museum or the Cultural Property Bureau. 

It might be said that current status of Korean painting resulted from both the rapid changes of society toward modernization and an inner problem within the Korean painting circle. Most of all, the definition of Korean painting is not clear. Some use the term of 'Oriental painting', while others use 'Korean painting' for the same painting. This can cause a confusion that these two terms indicate different styles. It is not right to ascribe this confusion to an exterior cause because the insiders are not clear about their own identity.

Vicissitudes of Korean painting

Korean painting has a long history. It dates back to the beginning of the Korean history, when primitive men left their drawing in Bangudae in the Bronze Age. Then, the ancient painting of Korea has developed into a unique style since the Three Kingdom period.

The best example among the paintings of this period is the tomb painting of the Goguryeo dynasty, which was excavated in Manchuria and Pyeongyang. Korean painting has developed its own style while subjects and themes have changed according to the times. For example, the early tomb painting with the portrait of the dead as a centerpiece was strongly influenced by a genre painting and a Buddhist painting of the times. In the meantime, the hunting painting in the Dance Tomb is outstanding in its live depiction of the characters. In addition, the tomb paintings in the late 6th and the early 7th century such as the Four Deities Tomb and Gangseo Tomb are characterized by the portraits of deities. 

It is not easy to study paintings of the Baekje period because of scarcity. Yet, it is presumed to have developed into a unique and high-quality art under the influence of Goguryeo and South China. In comparison to a Goguuryeo painting, a Baekje painting lacks dynamism, but we can observe its splendid and delicate lines and stable composition in the paintings of Songsanri and Neungsanri tombs. Paintings of the Shilla dynasty are even scarcer, but those of the Heavenly Horse Tomb prove their quality. According to 『 Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms』, Shilla had a 'Bureau of Painting' even before Queen Seon-deok. Later, during the Unified Shilla period, painters such as Solgeo and other painters left their names in the rare documents with some anecdotes about their superb skills, which led us to suppose their art had reached the pinnacle in quality. 

During the Goryeo dynasty, paintings were enjoyed by high officials and Buddhist monks as well as professional painters at the Bureau of Painting. According to the oral history, the name of Lee Ryeong, the professional painter, became well-known to China and the emperor of the Song dynasty invited him to paint for him. In this period, not only landscapes but also portraits and animals, flowers and birds, the Four Gracious Plants were among the popular subjects of a painting. Documentary paintings and Buddhist paintings were conducted, too. 

The Joseon Dynasty witnessed the golden age of painting in the history of Korean art, led by literary painters as well as the professional painters from the ‘Bureau of Painting’. In the beginning of the period, the famous names included Ahn Gyeon who painted the dreamy landscape of a paradise, Gaang Heean from the noble class, Prince Anpyeong, Yi Sangjwa from the lower class who imported the Chinese style from the Song dynasty, Yi Amm who excelled in animal painting. In addition, some artists such as Yi Jangson and Choi Suk-chang were known as masters of a technique using ink spread instead of drawing lines.

Later, the history of painting continued to the mid-Joseon period, in spite of several wars against China and Japan. However, painting of this period underwent a certain change; the literary style of the Southern School of China was highly respected, while realist style of the Northen School was despised. Such a change reached its peak in the late Joseon period when an ethnic style was added to the Chinese style learnt from the Ming and Ching dynasty. In this period, it seemed that landscape painting based on the real scenery had taken root, while practical science was been introduced among the middle-class men such as merchants and experts in various fields. In the period, the landscape based on real scenery was on the decline and literary painting led by Kim Jeonghee took its place together with the Southern School of China.

Such a change of painting style as above resulted from the idea that a painting was a tool for cultivation of philosophy and aesthetics. This also caused the painting circle to despise professional paintings based solely on technique and to respect literary painters. Such a change attained its climax at the end of Joseon dynasty and the Colonial period under Japan. Since then, the new Japanese style, namely Dreamy Style and that of Southern School of Japan became the centre of the painting in Korea. The splendid colored painting was introduced by the painters who had studied in Japan and widely spread through the Joseon Art Exhibition. 

For this reason, colored painting of Korea was labeled and despised as Japanese style after independence from Japan, despite that it had a long tradition since the Three Kingdom period. This resulted not only from nationalism after a long period of colonization, but also from the conflict between the artists who attempted to gain hegemony in the painting circle by dominating the newly established Korean Art Exhibition in place of Joseon Art Exhibition. The criticism of colored painting as a Japanese style was supported by the dissident group against Kim Eunho who exercised a great influence over the art world as a judge of the Joseon Art Exhibition during the colonial period. Kim had been ousted from the position by the oppositon, until he took back the leadership in the following year. He had a keen interest in education and produced many pupils through the Huso group, creating a solid network among the art world. Nevertheless, criticism that he was a Japanese style painter, and his pro-Japanese activities were good excuses for the opposition to attack him thus damaging his reputation. 

Despite its long tradition, colored painting in Korea has been accused of being an imitation of Japanese style, which caused Kim's pupils to convert to black-and-white painting. Since then, tradition of colored painting in Korea was almost exterminated. Moreover, the whole of the Korean painting circle started to decline, when the strong wind of abstract painting and contemporary art blew to Korea. In this circumstance, the Mukrim group caused a sensation with new techniques such as ink-spread, rising up against the tradition and old aesthetics in the early 1960s. In addition, in the midst of the black-and-white painting movement during the 1980s, the colored painting became even more alienated from the art world. Today's existence of colored painting in Korea owes a lot to the few artists who succeeded in its tradition, undergoing the vicissitude under political circumstances.  
Creating the New out of the Old

It was the Huso group under the leadership of Kim Eunho who succeeded in the tradition of colored painting after independence from Japan, which had been sustained by the ‘Bureau of Painting’ during the Joseon period. Yet, as is mentioned above, they lost their influence while being accused of the legacy of colonialism. Nevertheless, there were followers of this tradition - Park Laehyun, Cheon Gyeongja, Park Saengkwang, Jo Boksun followed by Oh Taehak, Lee Kyeongsu, Lee Youngsu, Liu Minja, Lee Sukja, Oh Nangja, Won Munja  as the next generation. They were also followed by Hwang Changbae, Kim Byungjong, Seo Jeongtae, and then, Kim Seondu and Park Wanyong. 

In my understanding, it is the female painters from the 1970s among the above names, who exemplified the philosophy and techniques of the minute painting based on stone-powder coloring. It is regrettable that such a tradition as colored painting was swept away by the waves of modernization. The crisis of traditional colored painting is not a new issue. Nevertheless, there are still few to inherit our painting tradition from history. 
Under this circumstance, Lee Sukja(1942~  ) takes a very unique position in the art world of Korea. Throughout her life, she has been devoting herself to traditional colored painting, which could not guarantee an easy life and success as an artist. In addition, it is highly respected that she made an enormous effort to perform her various roles not only as an artist, but also an educator, mother and woman. She also had considerable success as an artist, who also handed over the tradition of colored painting to her pupils both in theory and practice. It is also noticeable that her name can be found in the list of the popular artists in the art market, which is rare among the traditional painters.  

She learned colored painting under Cheon Gyeongja, Park Saengwang and Jo Boksun at Hongik University. While many of her colleagues turned their direction to black-and-white painting, she persisted in colored-painting. We can guess that she was influenced by her tutor, Cheon Gyeong-ja, who was a great master of colored-painting at that time. She possesses such patience and courage to overcome hardship in pursuing colored-painting. She also has a brilliant talent in detailed depiction. These conditions might have led her destiny to colored-painting. For her, colored-painting is not the legacy of colonialism or Japanese style, but that of our tradition. The idea that it had an enormous value as a tradition, though it had been marginalized for a long time, made her devote herself to colored-painting which was not easy. 

In her early works, she literally created the new out of the old. That is to say, she respected the old as a basis of her work, and developed it into the new style without losing its essence. When she pursued further study at the graduate school, the whole painting circle of Korea was being swept away by a new art movement. So-called Performance Art or Happening widely attracted public attention and was covered by newspapers alongside other genres of avant-garde art including installation etc..

Nevertheless, she did not turn her eyes to the new trend in contemporary art but gave herself up entirely to the tradition of colored-painting. As a result, she was accepted for the Korea Art Exhibition in 1963, which functioned as the only gateway for the young painters to the art world. Later, she established a remarkable record by being accepted twelve times and gaining special recognitions three times at the exhibition. She finally won the Grand Prize at the 29th Korean Art Exhibition in 1980.

In 1973, she had a solo exhibition for the first time in her life. It was a long awaited moment, because she unavoidably took a long way around to be an artist. Her father's failure in business forced her to give up entering art college. Instead, she unwillingly entered the college of education and became an elementary school teacher. While teaching school children, she finally realized her dream of entering art college. At that time, the motifs of her work were mainly domestic things used by the ancient ladies from the Joseon period. However, instead of realistic representation, she chose to compose them in a fresher way by reconstructing the reality. Lee Gyeongseong, an art critic, once mentioned “the main characteristic of Lee Sukja's painting is, first, the tension and harmony in her use of colors, and second her search for the essence of beauty found in folk crafts. Most of all, her work possesses taste and elegance with a contemporary sensibility, and she make us sure that her art does not belong to the past but to the present."

In other words, her painting was not merely a depiction of minute details, but a unique composition of household belongings and accessories. She used the traditional technique of colored-painting but, in the meantime, employed a constructional composition. This unique method resulted in harmony of tradition and new style to create new aesthetics. Vivid and clear colors were created by harmonizing those of folk crafts and color planes.
The second solo show witnessed a certain change in her oeuvre. The new paintings were filled with flowers in bright colors, sometimes in a vase. Those flowers were painted as if they followed the law of frontality in the Egyptian statues. This change might have been mistaken for idealization and formalization in painting or for her enjoyment of decoration. Yet, it should be understood as her persistent experiment of colored-painting. During this period, she focused on the values, clearness, and uniqueness of the colors in flower paintings, which strengthened her command of color. Azalea, cosmos, hydrangea, lily, magnolia, chrysanthemum and pansy were not only flowers; each of them represents each color. Also, the picture planes were filled with flowers with little 'space', which had been considered one of the most important elements in Korean paintings. This was another facet of her aesthetic experiment. Sometimes, flowers were overlapped with female nudes. Yet, those nudes did not have a considerable meaning but were just an element for composition. In this phase, her focus of interest was composition, color and the harmony of folk crafts in a single picture plane without losing the physical property of each element. 

She always makes a new attempt and experiment systematically. Her works such as <The Crowded Marketplace>(227.3 X 181.8cm, Stone paints on paper, 1970) in a cubist style and <The Market>(153.X210.0cm, (120F), stone painting on paper, 1972, Collection of Korea Univ.) well exemplify her philosophy of "creating the new out of the old" by harmonizing traditional painting method and modern aesthetics. Those works also show her endless love and sympathy for the ordinary people, which predict new subject of her painting such as working women and Eve.
Vitality of Barley Field

In the late 1970s, Lee presented the series of a Barley Field, which became her lifetime theme. Though her first painting of a barley field dates back to 1973, it was the Korea Art Exhibition in 1977 where she introduced the series in her well-known signature style, in which the green barley field fills the whole picture plane,

The theme of barley field is based on her childhood memory when she took refuge in the countryside, the hometown of her grandfather, during the Korean War. In the painting of barley field, she recals various sentiments and memories of the past to our mind. This is because, especially in Korea, a barley field not only signifies vitality of nature - a barley shoot growing out of earth, the green waves of the field in the wind, its golden color during the harvest time - but also reminds us of spring poverty. Therefore, this series brought the ordinary Koreans, who left the rural hometown for the city, to the border between the memories and regrets. 

Actually, this theme of barley field stirred nostalgia among the old Koreans who had a memory of living in the countryside. As Korean society entered a well-off level, the scenery of countryside let them look back on their devastated urban life. Furthermore, the barley field in her painting was considered friendly even by the city dwellers who were missing nature, as society became industrialized and urbanized. 

Lee remembers the first moment when she decided to paint a barley field. "It was ten years ago. I came across a barley field on the way to visit my sister-in-law who was a teacher in Pocheon. While walking along the ridge through a narrow path, a broad view of a barley field opened up below me. I was astonished. The field looked like green fog because of the barley beards. It was a beautiful harmony of light blue-gray stems, light green ears, the blades of grass. Black, white and yellow butterflies were fluttering over the field.” It left such a strong impression to her that she even remembers the date of the day - 6th October 1977 - when she witnessed the barley field in the midst of looking for a new theme for her painting.

Then with Eve, another element added to the barley field, her painting came to have even more vitality. As a matter of fact, her painting takes a considerable amount of time. The traditional method of stone(or rock)-powder painting requires such a long time as at least three or four month up to several years in completing a piece of work. So, it is quite natural that sometimes new ideas and elements are added while painting for such a long period. This is why the composite elements in her early painting reappear, the barley field is overlapped, and flowers came back in the Eve series. That is to say, she does not adhere to the initial idea or technique; rather, a long period of time allows her painting often to go through changes. In many cases, artists are absorbed in a certain theme or style and move to another in order. However, in Lee's painting, the old themes and techniques reappear or overlapped with the new ones to be beautifully harmonized in the end.  

It was the vitality and delicacy shown in the Barley Field series that strengthened her position as an established artist. In 1978, a year after she started the series, she won the Encouragement Prize at the first Jungang Art Exhibition with <Barley Waves-Blue barley> (162.1X130.3cm, stone-powder on paper, 1978). In the following year, she won the Grand Prize at the third Jungang Art Exhibition with <Barley Waves-Yellow Barley> (227.3X181.8cm, stone-powder on paper). 

As great talents mature late, she became the last winner of the Grand Prize at the last Korea Art Exhibition with <Work>(145.5X112.1cm, stone-powder on paper, 1980) in which women are working hard on barley-planting. This painting brought her confidence and encouragement with a glory of winning the prize. 
Later, her painting became even more vitalized with insects, butterflies and wild flowers added to the scene of the barley field. In addition there appeared traditional elements such as Hunminjeongum - the Korean script, in which the artist had been interested from the beginning. Then, the barley field became a place where all the elements from history and life intersect. In addition, the scene of the field waving in the wind added dynamism to the painting. In her painting, the earth represents the source of vitality in the form of a barley field and a female nude of Eve. On the other hand, it also symbolizes a female body as the origin of life, sometimes with a hint of female genitalia as a metaphor of a narrow path in the middle of the field as is exemplified in <White Barley - A Path between the Barley Field>(1996). Therefore, it can be said that the barley field is another symbol of femininity.

Eve, The Mother Earth 

In her painting, a woman represents motherhood, nature, and the origin of life. From early on, she continued to study nude croquis. This is partly because she started painting relatively later than other artists. In order to catch up with her fellow students, she worked on nude croquis as hard as she could. <Eve-Phrysia>(90.0X120.0cm, stone-powder on paper, 1972) and <Canary-Eve>(1973) and <A canary in the yellow cage and a woman>(1973) are the fruit of her assiduity. In a sense, we can notice an influence of Cheon Gyeongja, her old tutor, in the dreamy and sensitive mood of the woman sitting next to a bird cage with a canary in it. Also, in the case of <Eve-Seashore>(1973), a female nude sitting in the seashore not only creates a sensual mood but also represents fertility and motherhood. That is to say, unlike other nudes with a femme fatale nature, the female nude in her painting is seen as a human being not just as a woman, who is supposed to suppress her human desire rather than opening it up. This feminist attitude has not taken firm hold until <Blue Scent - At the Flower Shop>(1975). 

It was after the 1980s when Eve came back to Lee's painting sometimes glamorously with decorative flowers and naively with wild flowers at other times. This can be exemplified by <Eve - Hydangea>(1983) and <Eve - Peony>(1983). From then on, Eve seems to have such a female confidence as to be harmonized with the compositional picture plane and abstract background. This is well exemplified in <Abstract Eve>(1985). Then, through a variety of experiments, the nude and the barley field are finally encountered in her painting. When Eve came back in 1989, she was the dominant element, not overwhelmed by the flowers, which can be exemplified by <Lisianthus Eve>(1989), <Eve of Solitude, Agony, Memory, Mystery>(521.2X162.1cm, 1990) and <Eve-Cara>(1991) in which Caras are in blossom which resemble female genitalia like those in the Georgia O'Keefe's painting. Eve of this period can be characterized by female sexuality not as an object of male gaze, but as an expression of self-identity as a woman. 

It was <Barley field and Eve> when Lee's feminist stance became clear. Until then, the most female nudes in Korean paintings had been subordinate to male desire. Therefore, the female body used to be depicted in a way that pleased men.

The nudes in Lee's painting are not glamorous nor idealized. Rather, they are as common as ordinary women, which is not usual in female nudes. The woman in a bold posture can be read as a human being, who enjoys her sexuality and her role to give a birth. Now, the female nude was reborn as a human-being with a feminist awareness. 
This new identity continued in <Barley Field of Eve 89>(1989), in which a nude in the barley field represents vitality while wild flowers in white added some poetic mood to the painting. In <Barley Field of Eve> (1990) a couple of red flowers behind the nude in a barley field called our attention. At that time, the Eve series were provocative and offensive, which received compliments and jealousy at the same time.  

One of the common misunderstandings was that Lee as a female artist attempted to attract men's interest by depicting female nude. For the artist, representation of a female nude was a kind of gesture to liberate females from the chain of subordinance which had been suppressing women since the Joseon dynasty. Here, Eve in the barley field represents ordinary people, their healthy desire and enjoyment of sex, like in the folk paintings. Also, a barley field was a place for a secret date in the past, as is described in many folk literatures. 

Though the Korean society has been industrialized, we are still under influence of the old customs and traditions. The idea of a barley field as a secret place for lovers is one of the legacies of the past. Nevertheless, the sexuality is connoted with healthy humor. The artistic capability in her painting lies in the superb detail which perfectly immerses into the whole picture like a small wave in the sea. She never misses the balance and harmony as a whole while delving into every single detail. The minute details, seen in the barley and the hair of Eve, are a great surprise to us. 

To reconsider Lee Sukja

Lee's painting can be characterized by constructive composition as well as cleanness and clearness of vivid colors. In addition, accuracy in dessin and delicacy in coloring stand out in her work. However, the uniqueness of her painting lies in the fullness of the picture plane with no empty space which is usually expected in most Korean paintings. The still-life among her early work seems so flat in composition that there is little sense of three dimensional space. This flatness continues throughout her painting, regardless of themes or subjects. The barley field fills up the whole picture overlapped with a nude. 
Both fullness and flatness are significant in her painting; for those are the outcome of her effort to renew Korean painting by embracing contemporary aesthetics on the basis of tradition in colored-painting. She opened a new phase of colored-painting by making a connection between representation and abstraction.

It can be read as the spirit of 'creating the new out of the old' that she attempts to gain modernity through endless challenge and experiments in her work rooted in tradition. We can take an example of this attitude from one of her earliest work. In <Pray Ⅰ>(167.0X223.0cm, stone-powder on paper, 1977-1978) which depicted nine nuns, we can discover a sense of modernity in its flatness of the orderly composition. With doves at the bottom of the picture, all nuns are turning their eyes to a certain point except the one with a rosary in her hands looking at the viewers. The nun looking at us face to face arises our sympathy, as if she is destined to follow the life of Eve, who was to go through the pain of child-birth as a punishment for stealing the apple of the paradise. 

A group portrait reappeared in her painting in 1982. It was not well-known because it was right after the barley field series started attracting public interest. Nevertheless, group portraits of people and children can be seen as the same as the barley field or as an experiment of new representation of a barley field. She also has a deep interest in worldly affairs, unlike the artists who take a transcendental stance. It might be said that Eve was born out of the artist's love for people and passion for the self. <Campus - Trainees> (210.0X152.0cm, stone-powder on paper, 1982) is a depiction of the college students on campus in training suits, which reveals the gloomy mood of the 1980s in the midst of the political turmoil. She did not try to take an advantage of the passion for democracy and human rights in Minjung Misul, the people's art movement in Korea during the 1980s, in order to achieve her own goal. Rather, she embraced with motherhood the Zeitgeist in the metaphor of students who agonized over the social reality. The painting of the people burdened with social problems shows us what they were eager for. She also secretly harbored their spirit of resistance under the shelter of art. Such an attitude as above proves her social consciousness of the times. In the 1980s when almost all average Koreans stood up against the military dictatorship, she lived up to her responsibilities as an intellectual, mother,  and educator by representing the social reality in her painting. Her love for folk crafts continued in the love for ordinary people - the peasant women working in the field. From her experience as a woman, the artist might have felt a strong sympathy with those who work so hard in the busiest farming season. <Work>(1980) was an outcome of such a sympathy with the peasant women, with which she won the Grand Prize. 

Her awareness of self-identity as well as a sympathy with working women is well illustrated in other portraits of women such as <Prayer>(145.5X112.1cm, stone-powder on paper, 1981) in which three generations of women pray under the lotus lanterns on  Buddah's birthday, <Hymn>(1982) which depicts women singing a hymn in the choir and <Work>(1982) which represents peasant women working in the rain.  The large painting of a herd of cattle is a good example of these group portraits. Completed in 1987, <Herd of Cattle> is a monumental work of 454.6X181.8cm in size. This painting is based on her memory of the past. Filling the entire picture plane, the cattle gather together skin to skin. Here, the cows represent ordinary people who live their simple life with no complaint under the wheel of history. Though the visual homogeneity in the composition makes it hard to recognize instantly what the painting depicted. By replacing the realistic style with such an abstract element as frontality, she let us take time to meditate on it. <Herd of Cattle - Brindled Cow>(363.6X227.3cm, stone-powder on paper, 1987) clearly shows her idea about modernity, which is visualized in the form of constructive composition and frontality. Creating flat surface without the contrast between light and shade while depicting the cows in a realistic style, this painting seems abstract and representational at the same time. In this piece, the artist properly takes her position as a color painter and performer of Zeitgeist. Just like the camouflage series by Andy Warhol, this piece serves as the best example of her life-time pursuit of the integration of tradition and the spirit of the times.

We cannot simply define her art within the barley field and Eve. She produced other series after her trip to North Korea: she produced an enormous amount of croquis, the herd of cattle series, and the working women series, which show another aspect of Lee's work. For instance, <Baekdu Mountain>(227.3X1454cm,1992-2001) is the best of the best. This monumental painting is a masterpiece which required longer time and effort than any other piece. What is more amazing is the fact that she did not miss a single detail in this 14.5 m long picture plane. Just like minute details of barley immersed into the green sea of barley field, nature in the mountain embodies its spirituality as the object of our worship. 
For this reason, we should avoid defining her art within the stereotyped image. Lee's art is based on tradition; nevertheless, she is a modernist who is never dominated by the old. Also she is a feminist who practices quietly her feminine awareness rather than being an aggressive activist. She possesses such motherhood that she warmly embraces in her arms every single person in trouble and in need. I hope this exhibition be an opportunity to learn not only the artwork but also the inner side of the artist.